Wathinta abafazi wathinta imbokodwe

womens_march_poster

Eminyakeni engamashumi ayisithupha eyedlule abesifazane ababalelwa ezinkulungwaneni ezingamashumi amabili bamashela ezindlini zombuso e-Union Buildings, ePitoli bebhikishela imithetho yamapasi. Njengoba kwakuhlangene abesifazane abaqhamuka ezinkalweni zonke zezwe, umhla ka-9 Agasti 1956 kwaba ngusuku oluyingqophamlando, futhi olwashintsha umlando wezwe lethu. UMthetho Wabamnyama owashaywa ngo-1952, owawaziwa kakhulu njengoMthetho Wamapasi, wawuphoqa ukuba bonke abantu abamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika abaneminyaka engaphezu kwengu-16 baphathe amapasi zikhathi zonke. Lo Mthetho wawungeminye yemithetho eminingi eyayivimbela abantu abamnyama ukuba bahambe ngokukhululeka ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa kwakungokokuqala ukuba nabesifazane baboshwe ngabhande linye emthethweni wamapasi. Kwase kuphele amashumi eminyaka uhulumeni ezama ukuvimba ukutheleka kwabantu abamnyama namaKhaladi ukuba beze emadolobheni amancane namakhulu, kodwa futhi ehlomula ngokusebenza kwabo emadolobheni bengaholi imali etheni. EThekwini umphakathi wabamhlophe owawuyidlanzana wawubona ukuthi uzogqibeka uma kunganqandwa ukugcwala kwabantu abamnyama edolobheni, ngakho-ke kwaqalwa “uHlelo lwaseThekwini” ngasekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1900 ukuze kulawulwe ukuthutheleka kwabantu abamnyama, iningi labo elalize ngenhloso yokuzobheka amatoho emtateni, ngomyalelo wokuba kumele babe nezimvume ukuze babe sedolobheni.

Example of a pass book

Umfanekiso wepasi

Eminyakeni engamashumi amane eyalandelayo kwashaywa imithetho eminingi kwachitshiyelwa neminye ukuze kulawulwe ukuhamba kwabantu abamnyama, kanti ukuphathwa kwamapasi kwaba ngenye yezinhlelo ezazihambisana nombuso wobandlululo. Lo mthetho ka-1952 wawuchitha imithetho eminingi yamapasi eyayishaywe ezingxenyeni ezahlukene zezwe wabeka umthetho owodwa wezwe lonke wamapasi. Ngokwalo Mthetho kwakungavunyelwe ukuba umuntu ahlale edolobheni isikhathi esingaphezu kwamahora angu-72 ngaphandle uma

  • lowo muntu ezalelwe lapho futhi ehlala lapho selokhu azalwa;
  • lowo muntu esesebenze iminyaka engaphezu kweyishumi kunoma iyiphi indawo avunyelwe kuyona esebenzela umqashi, noma esehlale lapho isikhathi esiyiminyaka eyishumi nanhlanu.

Ipasi lalifana nephasipoti yokuhambela amazwe angaphandle yoze lona lalisebenza ngaphakathi ezweni, lalinamanyathelo eminwe nesithombe sobuso, kodwa futhi linemininingwane yokuqashwa, linemvume ebhaliwe eshoyo ukuthi ugunyaziwe ukuba kuleyo ngxenye yezwe, nesizathu sokuthola leyo mvume. Ngaphansi kwalo mthetho, noma yimuphi umsebenzi kahulumeni wayenamandla okuba akwesule konke lokho okubhalwe kwimvume, okwakwenza ukuthi imvume yakho yokuba kuleyo ndawo ingabe isasebenza.

Lo Mthetho Wabamnyama wawulawulwa nguMnyango Wakwandaba Zabantu, owasungulwa ngonyaka ka-1916. UMnyango Wakwandaba Zabantu iwona owawulawula izimpilo zabantu bomdabu eThekwini namaphethelo. Ukuhlolwa kwempilo, amapasi, ukukhokhwa kwezinhlawulo namalayisensi orisho, nokuhlinzekwa kwezindlu nezindawo zokuhlala konke kwakwenziwa yilo Mnyango. Phakathi kweminyaka yama-1990 isakhiwo esasisetshenziswa uMnyango Wakwandaba Zabantu sashintshwa senziwa imuseum iKwaMuhle, manje esesiyingxenye yomzila wezindawo ezingamagugu omlando womzabalazo wenkululeko. Le ndawo yaqanjwa ngoJohn Sydney Marwick (uMuhle), imenenja yokuqala yalo mnyango, ngemuva kokuba ithuthe ngempumelelo amaZulu ayizinkulungwane eziyisikhombisa yawabuyisela KwaZulu ngaphambi kokuqala kwempi yaseNingizimu Afrika.

IKwaMuhle Museum inemibukiso eminingi eyenziwa khona eminye ngeyesikhashana eminye ngeyesikhathi eside, okubandakanya umbukiso weDurban System, okuyiyona eyendlalela ukufika kobandlululo eminyakeni eyalandelayo.

 

 

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