I-Congress of the People yabakhona ngomhlaka 26 Juni 1955, e-Kliptown, ngaphandle kwaseGoli. Behanjelwe ngabantu ababalelwa ku-3000, inhloso yalo mhlangano bekungukuxoxa ngokuqukethwe yilo Mqulu weNkululeko ohlongozwayo, nezethulo zale dokhumenti sezamukelwe zivela kubantu ezweni lonke. I-Freedom Charter, eminye yemigomo ebingafakwa kuyo izofakwa kuMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika, yaba umqulu we-ANC, futhi iwuphawu lokuphikisana nobandlululo lwangaphakathi.

Kwakukade kubuzwa ukuthi kungani uhulumeni evumele i-Congress of the People ukuba isebenze. Kepha ngemuva kwezinyanga, lapho abaholi be-Congress abangu-156, kubalwa cishe nekomidi eliphelele le-ANC, baboshwa  ngenhloso yokuzama ukuvukela umbuso, impendulo yayicacile – uhulumeni wayehlose ukuphula amandla e-Congress Alliance unomphela, kusukela izibhengezo zangaphambilini bezingasebenzanga.

Ngokusho kwabashushisi, i-Freedom Charter yayihilela ukuketulwa ngodlame nokucekelwa phansi kukahulumeni okhona, njengoba le kwakuwukuphela kwendlela ‘yamalungelo alinganayo abo bonke’ ayotholakala ngayo. Abashushisi baphinde basola ababezama ukuqulwa kwecala ngokuzama ukusungula umbuso wobukhomanisi. Kwabekwa usuku lokuqulwa kwecala futhi kwaphasiswa umthetho omusha ovumela ukwakhiwa kwenkantolo ekhethekile, enamajaji amathathu esikhundleni sokwejwayelekile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinkantolo zivumele uNgqongqoshe Wezobulungiswa ukuthi aqoke amajaji.

Ngenhlanhla nokho, ngaphambi kokuthi umshushisi aqede ngisho icala labo, amacala ahoxiswa kubamangalelwa abangu-73 kwabangu-156. Phakathi kwalabo abakhululwa kubalwa uMongameli we-ANC, u-Chief Albert Luthuli, uNobhala-Jikelele we-ANC, u-Oliver Tambo, kanye nezikhulu ezivelele ze-South African Indian Congress, njengo-Dkt Monty Naicker.

Ngezindlela eziningi, ukuqulwa kwecala isikhathi esinde ekuboshweni kwaba umgogodla futhi kwaqinisa ubudlelwano phakathi kwamalungu e-Congress Alliance yezinhlanga eziningi. Icala laphinde lavumela abaholi be-ANC ukuba babonisane ngomgudu womzabalazo wabo: abaningi ababoshwa baboshwa ezitokisini zomphakathi ejele laseGoli, okwaholela ekutheni uMandela akuchaze “njengomhlangano omkhulu kunayo yonke futhi omude kunayo yonke ongavunyelwe w-eCongress Alliance eminyakeni eyedlule”.

Ekuqaleni abesilisa abamhlophe, abesifazane abamhlophe, nabantu abamnyama bonke babegcinwe ezingxenyeni ezihlukile zejele, kodwa umasekuqulwa amacala babezimela ngokwabo ku-State of Emergency, banxenxa abaphathi bejele ukuthi babavumele bahlangane ukuhlela ukuzivikela kwabo kanye abamangalelwa besifazane abamhlophe, abesilisa abamhlophe nabesifazane abamnyama bonke balethwa ejele labesilisa base-Afrika. Iziphathimandla zejele zazisafuna ukwehlukanisa  laba bamangalelwa ngokobuhlanga nangokobulili lapho behlangana ndawonye emihlanganweni yabo. UMandela uchaza inkinga eyenzeka ejele:

“Iziphathimandla zakha igebe lokuhlukanisa u-Helen no-Leon [Levy] kithi, nesigaba sesibili sokubahlukanisa u-Lilian no-Bertha [Mashaba Gxowa]…. Ngisho nomdwebi wamapulani angaba nenkinga ekuklama isakhiwo esinjalo.”

Ngomhlaka 29 Mashi 1961 womathathu amajaji avumelana ngokuthi umbuso wehlulekile ukufakazela i-ANC noma i-Freedom Charter njengekhomanisi, kwathi ngemuva kwecala elide kakhulu lokuvukela umbuso emlandweni waseNingizimu Afrika, abasolwa bonke batholwa bengenacala. Isu likahulumeni lokunqana ukwakhiwa kwe-Freedom Charter aliphumelelanga.

Ukuqhubeka cishe iminyaka emine nohhafu Icala Lokuhlubuka Kukahulumeni lango-1956 kwaba yisikhathi esibalulekile emlandweni waseNingizimu Afrika. Ukuqulwa kwecala ngesinye sezibonelo zokuqala zokungenelela kwamanye amazwe ekulweni nobandlululo – sebefundile ngecala, nezicelo zesigwebo sentambo, umpristi wase-Anglican, u-John Collins, wakhipha u- £ 75,000 ukuze akhokhele izindleko zabasolwa, kanye nokunakekela imindeni yalabo ababhekene necala. Okuyindida ukuthi izinkantolo zibone inqwaba yeziboshwa zezepolitiki ezingenacala zokugqugquzela udlame ulubhekiswe uhulumeni naye akalahlekelwanga – bekungalesi sikhathi lapho i-ANC ibuyekeze khona isikhundla sayo sokungabi nodlame, yanquma ukuthi kudingeka izinyathelo ezinqala ukufeza inhloso yabo yenkululeko yabo bonke.

Izithombe ngezilokotho ze-www.bbc.com, www.nydailynews.com kanye ne-www.sahistory.org.za

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