Uguquko olwimini lwesiZulu

Uguquko olwenzeka ezilimini lujwayelekile lwenzeka ngazo zonke izinsuku esiphila sikhuluma kuzo. Lokho-ke kwenzeka ekubeni thina abantu nxa sikhuluma sibeke emagameni izincazelo-thize uma siwasho nje, kodwa ekuwakhulumeni nasekuwezweni lawo magama kuvele kube njalo izinguquko ezincane nezinkulu ezihlosiwe nezingahlosiwe ezenza ukuba lawo magama aphinda asho into ehlukene kancane kunayizolo.

Unyaka we-2019 wabe ukhethwe yi-United Nations ukuba ngowezilimi zabomdabu emhlabeni wonke jikelele okuvuse umdlandla ebantwini abaningi ukulondoloza, ukusebenzisa, ukuhloniphisisa, nokuthuthukisa izilimi zabo. Ikakhulukazi lowo mdlandla wagxilisa ekuqhakambiseni izilimi kuqala ukuze zingaba zaziwa ukuthi zisakhona nokuthi nazona zikhulu zingachaza noma yini okusemhlabeni; okusha sha nokudala kakhulu.

Umlando wezilimi zakuleli esikhathini sobandlululo waba ngowokucindezelwa phansi kwesithunzi sabo bonke abantu abansundu, bhekelwa phansi ezabo izilimi. Lokho kwaholela esimweni sesibhicongo saseSoweto esenzeka ngomhla we-16 kuNhlangulana ngowe-1976 lapho abafundi abamnyama babedutshulwa ngamaphoyisa ngenxa yokubhikishela kwabo ukuphoqeleka ukufundiswa ngolimi lwesiBhunu kuchithwe izilimi zabomdabu ezikoleni nakumaNyuvesi.

Ukusikhumbula kwethu isibhicongo leso kuyasikhuthaza ukuhambisa phambili ezethu izilimi kuwo wonke umkhakha; ezifundweni eziphakeme, ukucwaningeni, ekubhaleni, ekushicileleni, njalonjalo. Phela futhi emuveni kwalo nyaka we-2019 wezilimi zabomdabu kusengathi abantu sebelokhu babe bekhuthazwe ngogqozi olukhulu lokuqhubeka nomsebenzi obalulekile wokuzisebenzisa bephilise zona izilimi zabo. Ngenzansi kuyobalwa-ka ezinye izibonelo zalokho-ke.

iNyazani

Namhlanje kukhona imizamo eminingi yokuhambisa phambili izilimi zethu emikhakheni ehlukahlukene yezinhlobo zobuchwepheshe. Le mizamo ngeyokuqamba amagama amasha okuchaza izinto ezintsha sha emhlabeni njengezingqayi (phecelezi ‘ama-filimu‘), izinkundla zokuxhumana (ama-‘social media‘), amatshelo (‘ama-noveli‘), nokunye okuhambisene nolwazi ngomhlaba. Amanye amagama amasha esiZulwini achaza izenzakalo zezemvelo ngalawa: iHwanzi (i-Hydrogen), inXelesi (i-Electron) , iNyazani (i-Plasma), uNyanta (i-Gravity). Nokunye okuningi. Umthombo walawo yikhasi lakwi-Facebook elibizwa nge-ZULU Vocabulary.  

Ngomhla we-24 kuNcwaba ngowe-2020 kwashicilelwa indaba mayelana nomsebenzi oke wenziwa ukwetha ngamagama izinhlobo zezimila ezihlaselayo ezivela ngaphandle kwezwe lethu. Lokho kwaba kubalulekile kakhulu ngokuba lezo zinhlobo ziyangena zibulale imithi nezihlahla esizazi sizisebenzise neziphilisana nayo yonke imvelo yakhona ngobudlelwano obuthize bemvelo. Lezo zinhlobo ezihlaselayo sezike ziqalile ukwaziwa ngamagama ezinye izimila eziyizo zomdabu, okusho ukuthi abantu bake baqale ukuzisebenzisa nokuzitshala bengazi ukuthi benza okuzolimaza izwe nemvelo yalo.

Tree of Heaven

Lobo bungozi buvela ekubeni izimila zangaphandle azinazo izilwane ezizidlayo okusho ukuthi zande zihlasele njengamagagasi ziqede nya okusemvelweni. Isibonelo salokho isihlahla esibizwa nge-Tree of Heaven esidabuka e-Asia esiphimisa ushevu olubulala zonke izimila eziseduze kwaso. Enye ingozi evele ezimileni ezihlaselayo yisomiso esidalwa ukuwaphuza kwazo amanzi ngokweqile. Isifundazwe saKwaZulu sesibe sihlaseliwe yisomiso ngeminingi iminyaka manje.

Bese-ke uMenzi Nxumalo ongumlondolozi wezemvelo waqala ukuyibona inkinga waqala ukusebenzisana nabantu baKwaZulu ukwetha amagama amasha alezo zinhlobo zezimila ezihlaselayo ahlosiwe ukuchaza ukuthi zingeyizo zona ezinhle phela kufanele zichithwe enhlabathini zishiswe. Ezinye izibonelo zalawo magama amasha yilawa: iNdwane,

uPhiwayinkosi Mbuyazi

Omunye umuntu oseke uthuthukisile ulimi lwakho isiZulu umbhali wezincwadi uPhiwayinkosi Mbuyazi waqamba amagama amasha esiZulu aphezu kwangamakhulu amane namashumi ayisishiyagalombili (480) ukuchaza izinto ezintsha ngaphandle kokusebenzisa amagama ayimifakela. Amanya ngalawa: uMnukubalo (i-pollution), uMzulane (i-planet), ubuNgqonela (i-colonialism) namanye amaningi. Abanye oSolwazi bayagxeka ukuqanjwa kwamagama amasha kodwa sebeyakhohlwa ukuthi uguquko lolimi lukwenzeka ngamabomu nangokungahloselwa. 

Kepha-ke, kusakhona imizamo-mbumbulo yokuqhakambisa izilimi zabomdabu okuvele zibe yizindlela zokuqoqa ulwazi nemininingwane. Iminyaka emibalwa edlule kowe-2015 iNyuvesi yakwaOxford yasungula inkundla yayibiza nge-Oxford Living Dictionaries. Le nkundla ibiyisizindalwazi sohleloxhumano (i-inthanethi) lapho kwaba khona imiphakathi yabantu ababesebenza ndawonye ukubeka amagama ezabo izilimi bebhala nezincazelo ukuze noma ubani owayedinga ukuqonda igama elisha babezokwazi ukuya kuleyiya nkundla befunda. Kodwa emva kweminyaka emibalwa baze bayivale i-Oxford Living Dictionaries besagcinile konke okwaba kungenelwe kuyo bakhe ngako i-Oxford Languages okuyisevisi esikhokhelwayo.

Inkululeko yokusebenzisa izilimi zethu nganoma yiyiphi indlela sizithuthukisa sizithokozise ngazo kuyilokho okwakulwelwa yilabo bafundi baseSoweto ngomnyaka we-1976. Ukuzijabulise ngenkululeko yoguquko lolimi kungukuqhubeka nokulwa nobandlululo obusho ukuthi izilimi zethu azikwazi ukundiza nokuthi zincane. Phela zikhulu kakhulu, azinazo imibandela nemingcele.

Imithombo yezithombe:

Global Voices
California Academy of Sciences
The Meander Chronicle
Cape Town Invasives

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