uDorothy Nyembe ehola umbhikisho wabesifazane ngowe-1959

Eminyakeni yowe-1900 (kusukela kowe-1909 kuya kweye-1960) uMasipala waseDurban wabamba yonke imboni yotshwala ngokuzinika ilungelo lodwa lokudayisa utshwala besiZulu edolobheni. Lokho kwakuchaza ukuthi kwakungavumelekile ukuba umuntu azenzele utshwala abudayise ngaphandle kohulumeni wabelungu. Kulezo zikhathi kwakuboshwa labo bantu ababebenza utshwala ukuziphilisa ngokubudayisa, ikakhulukazi abesifazane.

Kuboshwa abesifazane eVictoria Street Beerhall

eThekwini kwakukhona izindawo zokuphuzela ezazibizwa ngesiNgisi ngama-beerhall phecelezi ‘izindawo zamatshe’ kumbe ‘eMatsheni‘ ngesiZulu ngoba abantu ababewudayisa umqombothi babehlala eduze kwamatshe amakhulu abe seduzane nesikhumulo sesitimela. Indawo yokuphuzela yokuqala eyavela eThekwini kwakungeyaseVictoria Street, okuyilapho okwakubhikishelwa khona ukuphikisana nomthetho owawuthethisa ukuba kungekho semthethweni ukuzidalela udayise utshwala uma wawungesiwo uhulumeni.

Amaphoyisa eshaya isixuku sabesifazane

Lo mthetho wawubizwa nge-Native Beer Act ye-1908 futhi wawuyisisusa semibhikisho emikhulu eyaqala eMkhumbane (noma eCato Manor) ngowe-1959 ngesikhathi abesifazane ababeyondlela imindeni yabo ngokudayisa umqombothi behambele edolobheni ezindaweni zokuphuzela esixukwini sababengaphezu kwezi-2,000 yabesifazane. Babechitha utshwala bukahulumeni bethi ukuthi kwakungelungile ukungabavumeli ukuzenzela bona. Abesifazane babebhikisha ngenxa yokuhlukumezeka ngokohlanga kanye ngokobulili babo esikhathini esisodwa okwayenza impilo yabo ibe inzima kabi.

Njengoba sonke siyazi manje ukuthi uKhuvethe uyabhebhetheka emhlabeni wonke jikelele, singasizakala ngokuhlaziya imithelela yawo emiphakathini yethu namhlanje siyiqhathanise nezimo zayizolo. Omunye umthelela woKhuvethe eNingizimu Afrika yisinqumo sokumisa ngesikhathi ukudayiswa kotshwala kanye nogwayi. Lokho-ke sekwenzekile ngenxa yephuzu lokuthi ababhema ugwayi baphakamisa ingcupha yokusakaza igciwane likaKhuvethe ekubeni bawabelane usikilidi owodwa phakathi kwabantu bendawonye okuzonikeza igciwane kubo bonke kanyekanye.

Utshwala babe buvalwe ngenxa yokuthi kade kunenkinga yokuphuza ngokweqile eMzansi Afrika okudala ukuba izibhedlela zivele zibe zigcwele ngabantu abaphuzile baze bacishe bafa, kepha izikhala izibhedlela zizidingela iziguli ezinoKhuvethe ngenxa yezibalo zabo. Nokho kusakhona isililo esithi iningi lamanye amazwe omhlaba awanqumanga ukuvimba utshwala nogwayi ngale ndlela ngoba kungasizi ukunciphisa ukubhebhetheka koKhuvethe. Esinye isililo sisho ukuthi isizathu esikhulu sokuvalwa kogwayi notshwala yinkohlakalo yezikhulu zohulumeni abazozuzela ukudayiswa kogwayi notshwala ngezindlela ezingeyizo ezilungile.

Iphoyisa lichitha ukudla ngenxa yomthetho woKhuvethe

Manje sekubonakala imithelela emibi nezenzo ezibi zohulumeni emva kokuvalwa kotshwala. Okokuqala udlame oluvela emaphoyiseni azivezile emhlabeni wonke nakwelakithi ukuthi angesilo usizo lwabantu ngoba ayabulala abantu abangenacala futhi nawo aletha isihluku emphakathini yethu. Ezikhathini zobandlululo kwakucatshangwa ukuthi amaphoyisa alezo zikhathi ayeba nodlame ngenxa yombuso wodlame ayengaphansi kwawo kodwa esikubonayo namhlanje yikuthi ubuphoyisa uqobo buyikho okusebenzisa isihluku nendluzula nendlela buhleliwe ngayo. Lokho kungase kushiwo kanjalo ngenxa yokubulawa kwabantu abaningi ngamaphoyisa eMzansi Afrika naseZimbabwe ngowezi-2020. Kodwa nangaphandle kokubulala kube khona impoqa eyeqile yamaphoyisa; kaningana amaphoyisa angene emiphakathini lapho kwakwenziwa umqombothi wabantu abadlisana kanyekanye ewuchithe kanye nezimbiza zesishebo ababesiphekelana.

Amaphoyisa echitha umqombothi

Okungaqondwa wumthetho omusha wokuvala utshwala nowokuvinjwa kwezinhlangano zabantu phezu kwesibalo esithile kuwukuthi emiphakathini akufani nasemadolobheni lapho konke kuncikene emalini. Ezindaweni ezithile umqombothi wenziwe ukudlisa abantu umsoco hayi ukudakisana njengamabhodlelasitolo. Umqombothi ukhiqizwe ngokuxubanisa ummbila, umthombo wamabele, nezinye izinto ezinempilo kahle, futhi ungabi nazinga eliphezulu lokudakisayo. Phela nokudla abakuphekelanayo okwakuchithwa ngamaphoyisa kwachithelwa ukuba kwakungavunyelwe ukudliwa ndawonye ngesikhathi izwe lalikwizinga lokuqapha lesihlanu nelesine, kodwa manje namabhizinisi ezindawo zokudlela aphinde avuleke futhi kuleli zinga lesithathu evumelekile ukuba nabantu bedla ndawonye. Njengoba lezo zindawo ziphoqelekile ukulandela imigomo nemithetho yokuhlanzeka ukuba zidayise, kungani ukuba abantu basemiphakathini kwakuchithwa ukudla kwabo? Kwakuyoba ngcono ukuba amaphoyisa afike ukubafundisa ngendlela enconyiwe yokuhlela ukuphekwa nokuphakelwa kokudla nomqombothi wabo.

Uma siqhathanisa izehlakalo zayizolo zemibhikisho yabesifazane ngomthetho we-Native Beer Act ye-1908 (nokucindezelwa phansi kwayo wuhulumeni wobandlululo) nemithelela yesinqumo sohulumeni wanamhlanje sokuvala ukudayiswa kotshwala singabona ukuthi okungeqondwa kahle wukuthi namhlanje kusawumsebenzi ohambisene ngobulili. Ngamanye amagama, kungumsebenzi abesifazane baphoqekile ukuwenza nabaziphilisa ngawo. Ukuchithwa kokudla nomqombothi okuphekwa yibo abesifazane emiphakathini kusikhumbuza ngezikhathi ezinzima lapho uhulumeni ubesebenzisa amaphoyisa ukuletha udlame nesihluku olubi kubantu besimame. Omunye owayekwazi konke lokho kwakunguDorothy Nomzansi Nyembe owayehola imibhikisho leyiya yabesifazane. Wabe eboshwa kuleyo mibhikisho ngeminyaka eminingi kodwa ngesikhathi ephuma wasungula izinhlangano zokusiza abantu besifazane.

Imithombo yezithombe:

TheSouthAfrican
South African History Online
University of Cape Town Special Collections

Leave a comment

Leave a Reply