https://www.rencontres-arles.com/en/artistes/view/538/zanele-muholi
Umfanekiso womthwebuli uZanele Muholi

uZanele Muholi (owazalelwa elokishini eMlaza esifundazweni saKwaZulu ngomhla we-19 kuNtulikazi ngowe-1972) ungumthwebuli olwela amalungelo abantu ‘abayizitabane’ eMzansi Afrika. Emsebenzini wakhe wokuthwebula izithombe uzama ukwazisa abantu ngezimpilo ‘zezitabane’ eMzansi Afrika ngokubonisa ubuntu nobunsundu babo. Ubesebenzisa amakhono akhe okuthwebula izithombe ezinamandla ngeminingi iminyaka njengesishoshovu esilwela abantu abayizitabane abakade bacwaswa emhlabeni, abantu okuthiwa ngesiZulu ‘abambaxambili ngobulili’ (phecelezi o-‘transgender’).

uMuholi waqala ngonyaka we-2003 ukuqonda ukuthi kukhona ‘ubulili obungaphakathi kobulili’ okuyisizathu sakhe sokubandakanya abantu abanobulili obumbaxambili emsebenzini wakhe wobushoshovu. Phakathi kweminyaka yowe-2005 nowe-2019 usetholele umsebenzi awenzayo imiklomelo engamashumi amabili nambili.

Ngonyaka we-2003 wafunda i-Advanced Photography kwi-Market Photo Workshop eGoli (lapho esahlala khona) futhi ngowe-2009 wathola i-MFA eNyuvesi yeRyerton eToronto ezweni iCanada. Uyafundisa abantu abasha abayizitabane abahlala emijondolo amakhono obuciko njengawokuthwebula izithombe ebapha indlela yokuziphilisa ngayo nokutshengisa ngezabo izimpilo. Ngowe-2002 wabe ngowababili abasungula isithangami iForum for Empowerment of Women futhi ngowe-2009 wasungula i-Inkanyiso okuyisizindalwazi sokubukisa imisebenzi yobuciko eyenziwa ngabantu abansundu ‘abayizitabane’.

uZanele uyaziphawula njengoyisishoshovu kuqala noyiciko okwesibili. Phela uyakuxubisa ndawonye ubushoshovu nobuciko bakhe njengoba uyasebenzisa izinkundla zobuciko bakhe ukuphakamisa ukubaluleka kwamalungelo nesithunzi sabo bonke abantu kubandakanywe abayizitabane noma abambaxambili ngobulili. Kukumsebenzi wakhe lapho kusetshenziswa izinjulalwazi zobutabane (‘queer theory’), zobumbaxambili bobulili (‘gender non-conformity’), nezokunqwamana kwemikhakha yobuntu (‘intersectionality’) kuvezwa ezithombeni esikhundleni sokuba kuchazwe embhalweni. Kungathiwa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwale zinjulalwazi ngumuntu owazalwa eMlaza esikhathini sobandlululo kube kukhuthazwe ngomlando wemizabalazo kuleli yokulwela amalungelo abantu abamnyama.

https://www.out.com/art/2019/4/23/zanele-muholi-forever-changed-image-black-queer-south-africans
Umfanekiso kaZanele Muholi

Izithombe nemisebenzi zikaZanele sezaziwa emhlabeni wonke jikelele njengezibonelo zenkululeko ezingalethelwa ngobuciko kubantu abacindezelwa phansi ngohulumeni, ngobandlululo, kanye nangokungazi emiphakathini. Imisebenzi yakhe iyahlosa ukwandisa ulwazi lwabantu ngoqobo nezimilo lwabantu abangalandeli amasiko athile aphoqa ukwahlukanisa isifazane nesilisa, kanye nangothando olwenzeka phakathi kwabantu noma bengobani. Lokho kusabalulekile namanje njengoba busayinkinga enkulu ‘ubudoda obukhohlakele’ (phecelezi yi-‘toxic masculinity’) obuyisisusa sodlame oluningi lapho amadoda abulala abesifazane, abambaxambili, nabatabane abaningi ngenxa yokubuzonda ubulili noma uthando babo. Yilobu budoda obukhohlakele obenza amadoda efuna ukuzipha amandla okucindezela abanye ngoba buyabafundisa ukuthi kufanele abe ngabacindezeli. Lobu budoda obukhohlakele bulimala ikakhulukazi abantu abamnyama abayizitabane.

uMuholi naye wayehlushwa kabi ngomsebenzi wakhe kuNcwaba ngowe-2009 ngesikhathi owayenguNgqongqoshe wezobuCiko uNkkz. Lulu Xingwana enqabe ukuvula umbukiso we-Innovative Women eConstitution Hill eGoli ngenxa yentukuthelo yakhe mayelana nezithombe zikaMuholi. uNkkz Xingwana wayelindeleka ukwethula inkulumo phambi kwabantu ababeke beya embukisweni kodwa wawushiya ethi izithombe zikaMuholi zibe “zikhohlakele, ziyihlazo, futhi ziphikisene nokubunjwa kwezwe”. uMuholi waphendula ngokuchaza ukuthi eMzansi Afrika sasilwela inkululeko ngokobuhlanga phansi kwemibuso yamaNgisi, yamabhunu, neyobandlululo, kodwa manje kusakhona ukucwaswa nokucindezeleka okwenzeka mihla namalanga. Waqhubeka ngokusho ukuthi uXingwana wayeziveza engomunye weziNgqongqoshe ezingazi lutho mayelana nezimpilo zabesifazane abathandanayo ezweni, nezabo bonke abantu abambaxambili nabahlukene ngokobulili babo. Izenzo zikaNgqongqoshe uLulu Xingwana zazikhombisa ukuthi izethembiso esasiphiwa naso ngesikhathi senkululeko zingakafezeki wuhulumeni wentando yeningi.

Imisebenzi yakhe uyayihlosa ukuba umtapo womlando obonakalayo ogcina izindaba ‘zezitabane’ zaseMzansi Afrika njengoba bangabantu abangakaziwa kahle yiningi labantu kuleli abanezimpilo ezivamisile ukufihlwa ngenxa yodlame nenzondo olubehlela njengomphumela wobudoda obukhohlakele kuleli. Yingakho wakukhetha uMuholi ukuthwebula izithombe njengesishoshovu sesimanje esilwela amalungelo o-LGBTQI+, ngoba ukuthwebula isithombe kuwukwethula ubufakazi bobuntu bomuntu buvela bukhoma eziqwini zamehlo noma ekumeni komzimba. Imibukiso yakhe ise yizinsika kuleli ezisekela ithemba lezwe esilicingayo nesilifisayo; lona elithi izwe lethu lingaba ngeliphephile lapho wonke umuntu ube uphathwa kahle ekulinganeni okuphelele.

Umsebenzi kaZanele Muholi, njengoba wabe esezalwa esikhathini sohulumeni wobandlululo nesihluku sawo, uyalwa nokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu okusaqhubekayo manje kubantu abamnyama, abantu besifazane abathandanayo, kanye nabantu abanobulili obumbaxambili. Kuyabonakala ukuthi yileso simo sokuzalwa kwakhe okwamenza abe yisishoshovu esikhulu njengoba ayiso namhlanje esisabona ukuthi ukuhlukunyezwa nobandlululo kusayingqinamba enkulu emhlabeni wonke. Futhi yilo msebenzi wakhe osavutha umlilo uwugcine ubasiwe wobushoshovu kuleli njengoba kungumlando wethu omkhulu ukulwela amalungelo abo bonke abantu, ikakhulukazi labo bantu abangakabi nayo inkululeko yasembusweni omusha.

Umthombo wezithombe: OUT Magazine, ZEITZMOCAA